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Humanitarian Design vs. Design Imperialism: Debate Summary


Bruce Nussbaum started a firestorm with the question "Is humanitarian design the new imperialism?" — and the conversation has spread through the blogosphere. Here, a digest of essays and related posts on this subject.


THE CONVERSATION


Bruce Nussbaum, "Is Humanitarian Design the New Imperialism? Does Our Desire to Help Do More Harm Than Good?" (Fast Company, July 7, 2010)
"....So where are we with humanitarian design? I know almost all of my Gen Y students want to do it because their value system is into doing good globally. Young designers in consultancies and corporations want to do humanitarian design for the same reason."

"But should we take a moment now that the movement is gathering speed to ask whether or not American and European designers are collaborating with the right partners, learning from the best local people, and being as sensitive as they might to the colonial legacies of the countries they want to do good in. Do designers need to better see themselves through the eyes of the local professional and business classes who believe their countries are rising as the U.S. and Europe fall and wonder who, in the end, has the right answers? Might Indian, Brazilian and African designers have important design lessons to teach Western designers?..."

Cameron Sinclair, "'Admiral Ackbar, It's a Trap!' How Over-simplification Creates a Distorted Vision of Humanitarian Design" (The Department of Small Works, July 8, 2010)
"....Having been involved in this work for almost half my life I've seen a transformation for the 'western intervention' view played out by Bruce into a complex global network of multi-disciplinary, multi-cultural and diverse teams working locally hand in hand with communities on the ground. This new movement has striven to collaborate and partner with local designers and in our organization it is a requirement...."

Emily Pilloton, "Are Humanitarian Designers Imperialists? Project H Responds: Not All Americans Are Leaving the Country to Do Good" (Fast Company, July 12, 2010)
"....It is only through this local engagement and shared investment that the humanitarian design process shines. It is through this personal connection to place and people that the human qualities of design rise to the top of the priority list, through which our clients are no longer beneficiaries, but experts and co-designers right there with us...."

Susan Szenasy, "Why Bruce Nussbaum Needs Emily Pilloton" (Metropolis, July 12, 2010)
"....While Nussbaum plays into the design community’s (and their followers’) paralyzing cynicism, Pilloton opens up new doors, finds friendships, makes things happen, and uses design as a conversation about place, object, life, usefulness, and human worth...."

Jon Kolko, "The Puzzle of Bruce's Zeitgeist" (Austin Center for Design blog, July 12, 2010)
"It came as some surprise to me to read Bruce Nussbaum’s reflective piece "Is Humanitarian Design the New Imperialism?” which attempts to cast humanitarian design as some form of genius-based exportation of value structures. Bruce is as seasoned in history of design academia and practice as any expert in the new “design thinking”, so I was surprised that he overlooked such critical historic positions as Wittgenstein, who positions language as a unifying equalizer for communicating values (in this case, between “designer” and “consumer”).

Avinash Rajagopal, "Eat Pudding, Bruce Nussbaum!" (Little Design Book, July 13, 2010)
".... Design for social change is a pudding that takes a long, long, long time to bake. Inexperienced Western bakers trying to cook their first pudding in an Indian or African oven are unlikely to be successful, and will probably leave a bitter aftertaste. But there are those who are tenacious and sincere, who spend years learning how to do it right...."

Bruce Nussbaum, "Do-Gooder Design and Imperialism, Round 3: Nussbaum Responds" (Fast Company, July 13, 2010)
 "....Emily, I really don't know how to scale the significance of the negative reactions to humanitarian design. I do know that as a journalist, educator and fellow-traveling humanitarian designer, I am sensitive to what happens on the periphery and I was channeling that response in my post. That's why the post was structured in the form of questions, not answers...."

Robert Fabricant, "In Defense of Design Imperialism" (Change Observer, July 15, 2010)
"....Is the local model the only way to meaningfully engage in social-impact initiatives, as Nussbaum suggests? Are American designers who want to have an impact on global issues in emerging markets kidding themselves? And what about designers at larger firms like frog? Do we need to give up our jobs and move to a southern state to have an impact?

"This is a question that I have wrestled with personally and professionally in helping shape frog's investments in social impact. Do I stand by our work in South Africa for Project Masiluleke? Am I looking for other global partners to work with? The answer is, yes! But here is how we try to avoid the pitfalls that Nussbaum referred to in his original post...."

Alex Steffen, "The Problem with Design: Imperialism or Thinking Too Small?" (Worldchanging, July 15, 2010)
"....It's a harsh reality that the vast bulk of the world's ability to solve system-scale problems is concentrated in wealthy countries. If a bright green model of prosperity is going to be invented... big chunks of it will have to come from the Global North and be spread through partnerships between the North and South...."

Patrick James, "The Debate: Is Humanitarian Design a New Kind of Imperialism?" (Good
Blog, July 15, 2010).
"....Pilloton says humanitarian designers' biggest obstacle isn't geography; it's commitment. And that sounds about right. As to Nussbaum's question of whether the West might have  something to learn from the rest — and surely it does — I suggest taking a look at Carolina Vallejo's Design for the First World competition."

Niti Bhan, "Post-Colonial Design Blowback: The Challenge Facing the Global Design Industry" (Perspective, July 16, 2010)
"....What’s missing in all of this rhetoric on humanitarian design emerging from the OECD world? For starters, no acknowledgment of any of the following issues:
1. A sense of mutual respect – which in turn leads to the perception of arrogance and patronizing good works
2. No sense of give and take – that you may have something to learn from us
3. Lack of awareness of the global political realities or ignorance of history...."

Infini, "The Storm in A Design Teacup" (MetaFilter, July 17, 2010)
"Bruce Nussbaum kicked off a minor hubbub in design circles this week with his provocative article... But the question still remains unanswered."

Maria Popova, "The Language of Design Imperialism" (Change Observer, July 29, 2010)
"....What's most worrisome and ironic about the debate is the almost complete lack — with the exception of a few blog comments here and there — of voices of designers who work in the very regions and communities in question, those loosely defined as the "developing world" and the "Western poor." Worse yet, entirely missing are the much-needed multidisciplinary voices whose work is the cultural glue between design and its social implementation — anthropologists, scientists, educators, writers. "Yes, writers...."

Bruce Nussbaum, "Should Humanitarians Press On, If Locals Resist?" (Fast Company, August 2, 2010)
"Should American and European designers who do humanitarian design care if they are perceived as "neo-imperialists" by elites in the countries they are working in to alleviate poverty? After the conversation about my previous posts, I'd like to throw that question out for discussion because it gets to the heart of a key issue for many designers who are trying to help the poor in Asia, Africa and Latin America. When you're far from home, in other people’s cultures, who do you listen to? Whom do you respect? When do you speak truth to power?..."

Quilian Riano, "Humanitarianism and Humility" (DSGN AGNC, August 8, 2010)
"....Design becomes imperialist when it preempts the voices of those it seeks to help, or compresses them into happy soundbites to convince curators, clients and donors of the design's success. And — most importantly — designers, like humanitarians, should never try to be more native than the natives themselves."

David Stairs, "An Open Letter to Bruce Nussbaum" (Design-Altruism-Project, August 30, 2010)
"Following your much-discussed July 7th 'reasoned but misinformed volley' about design imperialism on the Fast Company blog, you were practically cut off at the knees for your viewpoint. The folks at Fast Company were probably happy about this, but it surprised me largely because I considered your piece not only uncontroversial, but mildly anachronistic...."




RELATED POSTS

John Thackara, Doors of Perception commentary (January 22, 2003 – April 7, 2010)
Collection of posts on design and development.

John Thackara, "We Are All Emerging Economies Now" (Design Observer, June 5, 2008)
"....The most powerful lesson for me, after 20 years working as a visitor on projects in India and South Asia, is that we have more to learn from smart poor people on things like ecology, connectivity, devices and infrastructures, than they have to learn from us...."

Valerie Casey and David Stairs
, "The Kindness of Strangers" (Change Observer, October 1, 2009)
It's getting mighty crowded in this social design space. Designers David Stairs and Valerie Casey debate the value of so many players vying to help the world.

Timothy Ogden,
"U.S. Lagging, Not Leading, Social Entrepreneurship" (Harvard Business Review, June 29, 2010)
"...
.Don't get me wrong: Innovations for the two-thirds world, coming from the two-thirds world are a great thing. But it's time the U.S. social entrepreneurship community recognized that it's following, not leading. Spend less time and money training entrepreneurs and funding contests domestically; invest more in social entrepreneurs globally.  The community should be more "venture capital firm" than "incubator." It should be bringing innovations from the two-thirds world back to the United States, rather than trying to export ideas...."

Shahana Siddiqui
, "Confessions of a Development Practitioner" (Forum/The Daily Star [Dhaka, Bangladesh], July 2010)
"....
An entire industry has grown out of poverty in Bangladesh, and with that, a cadre of development practitioners who have made a career out of it. I am very much a part of that cadre."
"All too often, I stare at many of such soap-box preaching program officers and wonder about their paths that brought us to yet another time wasting meeting...."


Posted in: Design Practice, Development, Global + Local, Journalism

Comment 16  |     |     |   Like 37  |   Tweet 9
Comments [16]
I wrote a post on this issue as it applies to social entrepreneurship in general, not just design, at the Harvard Business Review Blog, The Conversation about the same time as Bruce's original post:
http://bit.ly/bqrduq
Tim Ogden
07.19.10
11:15

In every single discipline, new perspective, new idea, new methodology, etc. this perspective always shows up, the need to take seriously the participation, input, position of the local. Something we should never forget, but that we should not romanticize it either. Local is not always good, as much as North is not always bad. It depends. Local and North has to do with your distance from something called "power relations." Power matter, and that we should always keep that in mind. Power could be here and there.
JM
Josep Miro
07.26.10
05:43

I would say a few things about this:

1- In the same way that sustainable and social issues are always local before they turn global, social and environmental design should be evaluated in a case by case basis.

2- If it takes a design office months to come up with a good solution for a market or context they already know, how could we expect a foreign designer to come up with a great solution after only a week of two in a completely new place? Small workshops might be fun, but should not replace a well structured research and design process. And it has nothing to do with industrialized vs developing countries. A new context is a new context, regardless of how developed it is.

3- Designers with no experience whatsoever in social and environmental issues are bound to fail if they do not take the time to understand the specific issues at hand. I doesn't matter if they do it in their neighborhood or in a country far away. Social and environmental design should not be understood as a summer workshop or pro-bono project.
Emiliano Godoy
09.04.10
02:43

I couldn't agree with Emiliano more. During my naive earlier years of my career I was involved in a charity that worked on the premise that UK architectural assistance in the international development sector was of added value.
What I ended up finding was that not only is everything much more complex than first presumed (a little obvious I know!), but often it is easier to sell doing good abroad than it is reflecting and dealing with our own problems closer to home.

http://resetnikki.blogspot.com/2010/09/humanitarian-design-perpetuating.html
Nikki Linsell
09.27.10
10:40

I am delighted to see this topic being debated.With my colleague John Dada (see http://www.dadamac.net/about/john ) I am working to enable effective two way communication between designers and people they want to design for at the grass-roots. I have written abut this here
Pam- we want street lights http://www.dadamac.net/blog/20091015/pam-we-want-street-lights
Dadamac - the Internet enabled alternative to top down development http://dadamac.posterous.com/dadamac-the-internet-enabled-alternative-to-t
and Marketing to the Bottom of the Pyramid http://dadamac.posterous.com/marketing-to-the-bottom-of-the-pyramid-and-da
Pamela McLean
10.06.10
07:48

I think this debate is great, and everyone's arguments are interesting and valid in different ways. Being a student new to this concept, I am still not exactly sure how I feel about "humanitarian design" and am probably not nearly as opinionated/educated as other, more experienced designers seem to be.

I know that first off, I am glad to be learning what people (designers and not) have to say about this and happy to see such a wide range of opinions. I'm also glad to be seeing feedback represented from the people in these quote-unquote disadvantaged countries/communities that people (Americans in this case... if not most cases) feel the need to interfere with and "help."

Despite my possible naivety, I see the good and bad in many of these arguments. I understand that Americans, many being "privileged," want to help people who are less well-off than themselves. I understand the argument that this can be an imperialist attitude, and I can completely understand how people in other countries see our efforts as pompous and unwelcome.

This may be a stretch... but this actually reminds me of the ongoing war in the middle east, and how the somewhat mysterious reason for our occupation is to "democratize" and help those in need of "civilization" etc, etc.

As Americans, we are saying we are there to help these people better themselves, when in reality we may be unwelcome/unwanted. I believe the soldiers (or even designers in terms of the topic of discussion) themselves have good intentions, but that doesn't necessarily mean the citizens asked or desire the help. I don't want to get into politics of course... I support the soldiers and have completely mixed feelings about the war. BUT anyway the point being... I think part of the problem is our American interpretation of people who are in need, and what they are in need of.

I am not trying to say those people in the middle east or elsewhere aren't in need of help (again... I am admittedly not the most aware of world circumstances and I'm not trying to claim any sort of firsthand experience)... but if these countries WANT or ASK for our help, this would probably be less of an issue. We wouldn't have to argue that designers as humanitarians are putting effort into projects that are unwelcome and consequently useless. For example, the One Laptop campaign may be a great idea, but the people in the targeted countries have their own ways of learning and living and are offended by the American ideal of the computer. Maybe this is unrealistic or utopian.... but I think the problem comes when we do have that "imperialist" attitude and assume our ideals upon others who are perfectly happy the way they are.

Whether due to the media, our own fears or whatever it is, many of us may be looking over the problems happening in our own country.... As if humanitarian work overseas is somehow glamorized and the goodwill of Americans-for-Americans is overlooked. (For example, how Mr. Nussbaum had stated that there are no humanitarian efforts in our country, when Project H and others are already doing important work in such places... and maybe just not being publicized.) I think for some reason, there seems to be an emphasis/priority put on the problems of other countries, with ours being left on the "popularity" back-burner.

As of now, all I can say is that everyone's argument poses a valid point. My opinion in terms of "humanitarian design" is that all people, whether they be citizens, designers, critics, etc, would be better off with open minds. Humanitarian efforts are most effective if the real needs/wants of people, of now and the future, are always considered. First and foremost.
JP
10.07.10
03:20

Reading this post, I came to understand humanitarian design even more. I enjoyed reading through all the thoughts and advice from the specialists in this area. It really gave some important and useful information that can help humanitarian design go to the next level when we can understand the flaws and strengths. So in my opinion, humanitarian design is not just something people/designers know how to do from the start, but a process that takes time to gain knowledge and experience to do it properly. To do great humanitarian design, or work in general that helps with issues in our society and culture, we should understand the issues first, the people, and actually want to be part of the process to make it better.
I agree how Emily Pilloton said, “It is through this personal connection to place and people that the human qualities of design rise to the top of the priority list, through which our clients are no longer beneficiaries, but experts and co-designers right there with us...." When designing something that involves the society, I think it is important and always smart to actually have the society, culture and other people involved with the issue to help with the design process. This way, the message is clearer and become even more powerful. Co-designing will help bring out fresher ideas that can help the humanitarian design shine even brighter than it would if it was just a process with designers.
As a designer, it is important to me to have a say in what I design, but sometimes we need to control how much we are actually saying. We do not want to only have our opinion and message become the only thing that comes across in the design. With humanitarian design, it is important to channel what the people within society want to say and emphasize. I like how Quilian Riano put it by saying, “…designers, like humanitarians, should never try to be more native than the natives themselves." We do not want to overpower what the people in society want to get across, but instead become one with them and help them spread their word. Working together with them hand-in-hand and just emphasizing their points will make the humanitarian aspect of the work better.
I have said in the beginning that humanitarian design should not be something that just comes out of nowhere, but a learn process. Commitment is the most important key in humanitarian design to me. In order to make something good and not a total piece of crap, we need to stay committed and go through the ups and downs of any project and issue. With humanitarian design, learning through mistakes will only make us better designers and as humanitarians. We will understand the issue more and know how to proceed to do what we do even better the next time. If we are half-assed in doing something, even with important work like humanitarian designs, the message and point of the design will become half-assed as well. With only mediocre work, the message will not have the impact it needs in society to evoke change and movement. Most people will just see it as a pretty piece of work that just sits in space doing nothing. Isn’t that just wasting the space around us, we need to utilize the spaces more effectively.
TM
10.07.10
05:43

I really enjoyed reading all of the different opinions in regards to Bruce Nussbaum’s proposed questions on humanitarian design. I think with such a complex topic like humanitarian design it is effective to start a conversation about its controversy by only proposing questions. This really let each responder convey their true opinions on this topic. There is quite a bit of controversy within humanitarian design’s ability to do “good” for communities. Although it is the goal, the goal is not always reached. This conversation addresses the ability to reach the goal, along with process, intention and interaction.
Doing “good” is the major goal for humanitarian designers. The ability to design for positive social change is not easy when often very different cultures are interacting. Interaction in humanitarian design is complicated, but I believe Avinash Rajagopal said it best with her pudding analogy. ".... Design for social change is a pudding that takes a long, long, long time to bake. Inexperienced Western bakers trying to cook their first pudding in an Indian or African oven are unlikely to be successful, and will probably leave a bitter aftertaste. But there are those who are tenacious and sincere, who spend years learning how to do it right...." This really conveys how interaction that is not given a great deal of time, or that is done with ulterior motives will not be a success. Interaction takes time and care, not haste. Rajagopal even goes further to give the roles of bakers and ovens to exemplify possible current instances.
Process is another important part of design. It is very clear that the process to help another community is not one that can be accomplished in a short period of time. This process always involves a great deal of learning, listening and experiencing another culture. Patrick James’ post about geography versus commitment shows one view on process. He says"....Pilloton says humanitarian designers' biggest obstacle isn't geography; it's commitment. And that sounds about right.” There is controversy here on what is the most successful process. Although location and personal interaction may help there seems to be a lack of long-term commitment that is a large underlying downfall.
This has really opened my eyes to humanitarian design and really addresses the positive and negative views out there for this type of design. In my opinion I believe that design is at it’s finest when the designer has submerged them self within the design. They have given the time to look, learn and feel all of the aspect supporting whatever the design is. I think the issues with this type of design come with the enormity of the projects. This is design to help an entire community. Much of the looking, learning and feeling will not come at a glance or by reading an article online, but by the designer dedicating them self to the complete process with an open mind.
MCE
10.09.10
06:06

Ivan Illich had all this figured out years ago, even before Mr. Nussbaum was in the Peace Corps. Stay home Yankee, Illich argued. Your over-schooled approach, combined with a uniquely American self-righteousness and gung-ho attitude, just imported technologies, economic structures, and all kinds of "tools" that encouraged the "developing" world to dream a dream that was not its own, the American dream of endless consumption and over-dependence on professionals like teachers and doctors. The best that designers from America and Europe can do is go abroad and learn and bring new ideas back home, ideas that might help the "developed" world avoid total catastrophe.
winslow
01.04.11
01:19

After reading all the different responses to Bruce Nassbaums's article 'Humanitarian Design vs. Design Imperialism: Debate Summary', it is hard to formulate a response that expands on or speaks to a certain point about what 'humanitarian design.' As a student, my experience in the field of design has been very brief when compared to someone as Bruce Nassbaum so I can only mainly speak from my own experience. As it is, this is the first time I have heard the term 'humanitarian design' and at first what it connotes is a design process that involves a type of highly functional design that meets peoples' needs in impoverished areas of the world. I think it is great idea that if you have the expertise about materials and the ability to construct and iterate ideas into physical objects or visual messages, you should be able to help people in some way if you desire to. I think what some of the comments referred to in associating this kind of design with a form of imperialism are not necessarily founded with people in mind but on ideologies and human moralities. As a communication designer, I have found mostly that my purpose is to facilitate communication of ideas and concepts. Whether that means providing creative direction, listening to someone's needs or creating a logo, I think that's where my area of expertise comes into play. However, I think that is important to realise that even if I have expertise, that expertise is not of much value without my client's expertise of their own field and ideas. In this way, I can see how it would apply to a humanitarian design approach where if I am going to a third-world country to see how my skills as a designer can help in the area, I would always need to be open to new ideas and ways of doing things. I don't think it is our job as designers to make people in third-world countries live as we do or communicate as we do as if we were importing culture for them to embrace. In fact, I think this is what I see as someone who comes from what is referred to as a third-world country, that when people are introduced to foreign things they always find ways to adapt and find ways to express themselves uniquely. I think this is what it means in part to be an individual created with unique hopes, dreams and aspirations. Maybe often people who are used to living in one set of conditions for a long time often forget that there are others ways of living and that they are not right 100% of the time. If I am not able to have flexibility as a designer then what would the point of communicating if I'm always assuming that I am right all the time. I hope I have made my point clear, thanks for reading.
rf
04.14.11
04:36

I TELL YOU SOMETHING MR BRUCE NUSSBANN, REGARDING DESIGN SPEAKING, THE MAJOR THING YOU CAN LEARN FROM INDIA, AFRICA AND BRAZIL, IS HOW TO ADVERTIZE THE EXPLOIDMENT OF CHILDREN, THEIR TRAFFIC, THEIR ORGAN'S TRAFFIC AND SO ON SO FORTH!DO YOU REALLY ASPECT ME TO BUY "THE FIRST THING ... UH? THAT ONE WAS JUST AN OTHER BUSINESS MOVE LIKE THE VALKIRYE ONE OF STAUFFENBERG WHEN HE ATTEMPT THAT "GOLPE" HIDING HIM SELF BEHIND THE EXCUSE OF A BETTER WAR WHEN THE POWER ,GUESS WHAT? IN CASE OF SUCCESS THE GENERAL ECONOMY AND MILITARY CONTROL, WOULD HAVE FALLAN TO HIM!WICH DID NOT HAPPENT BECAUSE HITLER DID NOT DIE IN THAT ATTEMPT!!!
JENDRIX
03.10.14
05:40

EMILY PLLOTON YOU'RE SO RIGHT! I'M DOING FOR THE FIRST TIME IN MY LIFE VOLONTEER JOB HELPING ADDICTIVE PEOPLE , AND ONLY WITHIN SUCH ENVIROMENTS YOU GIVE THE MOST OF YOUR SELF, WE NEED TO EXPERIENCE CERTAIN SITUATIONS TO DESIGN THEM.WE NEED TO FEEL THE GRIEF TO RELEAS THE ART!
JENDRIX
03.10.14
06:53

OF COURSE JHON TRAKARA, IF YOU GO TO PRISON YOU LEARN HOW TO BUILD A RADIO OUT OF ROBBISH, AND SINCE YOU ARE SO DEEP WHY DON'T YOU LIVE LIKE THEM, WITH THEM , WITHOUT USING YOUR DEBIT OR CREDITCARD FOR THAT MATTER?!
JENDRIX
03.10.14
07:03

FINALLY SOME ONE THAT SPEAK WITH SOME SENSE MR JOSEP MIRO!
JENDRIX
03.10.14
07:22

MR BRUCE NUSSBAUM YOU REALLY LIKE TALKING BOLLOCKS ONE AFTER THE OTHER DONT YOU?DO YOU REALLY PICTURE YOUR SELF AS A FILANTROPIST?OR YOU BELIEVE THE FOLKS THINKS THAT FOR THAT MATTER?
JENDRIX
03.10.14
07:28

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